Definition, Structures, Functions, Structures And MiscAugust 1, 2022
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MateriBelajar.co.id – In this event we will discuss the topic of Environmental Science in the field of Biology about Enzymes. The things that will be discussed start from the understanding, structures, functions of the body, pictures of its structure and different types.
An enzyme it is a bimolecule in the form of proteins that have a very important role in the body that is useful in carrying out functions in the body, such as reproduction, growth and respiration. All biological processes of cells require enzymes. Enzymes work by combining with substrate molecules to produce compounds.
Understanding according to Suhartomo
According to Suhartomo (1989)enzymes are the most abundant proteins in living cells and have an important function as catalysts.
Explanation according to Shabib
According to Shabib (1992)Enzymes are proteins produced by living cells and used by cells to carry out certain chemical reactions.
Definition according to Smith et al
According to Smith et al, (1997)Enzymes are biomolecules in the form of proteins that act as catalysts in organic chemical reactions.
Enzyme structures are divided into four distinct categories, namely:
The structures of proteins are similar to enzymes, but the structures of enzymes do not work on proteins. Indirectly the number of proteins in a cell is an enzyme.
2. The Catalyst
Is a catalyst that can change the rate of a reaction without participating in a reaction that can increase under normal conditions, for example from pressure, temperature and pH.
3. It works
Enzymes that can make molecules that are initially substrates can increase their kinetic energy.
An enzyme can only bind to certain substrates, which only happens to molecules or compounds that are bound.
Enzymes have a main function, namely as a catalyst that can speed up the reaction process in the body, especially in the digestive system.
An enzyme found in the mouth is the Amylase Enzyme, which is found in saliva. The function of this enzyme is to convert starch into maltose.
There are three enzymes found in the stomach, namely:
- Renin Enzymeit works to convert caseinogen into casein
- Pepsin enzymeit works to convert proteins into peptones, proteoses and polypeptides
- Lipase enzymeit works to convert triglycerides into fatty acids
3. Usus Halu
There are several enzymes found in the small intestine, namely:
- Lactase Enzymeit works to convert lactose into galatose and glucose
- Enzim Enterokonaseactivities to convert trypsinogen to trypsin
- Enzim Maltaseit works to convert maltose into sugar
- Sucrase Enzymefunctions to convert sucrose into fructose and glucose
- Peptidase Enzymeit works to convert polypeptides into amino acids
- Lipase enzymeit works to convert fat into glycerol and fatty acids
There are several enzymes found in the pancreas, namely:
- Trypsin Enzymefunctions to convert proteins into polypeptides
- Enzim Amilaseit works to convert starch into maltose or disaccharides
- Carbohydrase Enzymeit helps digest starch into maltose
The enzyme structure is divided into two, namely Apoenzyme and Cofactor.
- Apoenzyme is the main component of enzymes, the active part of the enzyme consists of proteins that are unstable and easily changed. Apoenzymes also determine the biocatalyst activity of the enzyme itself.
- Cofactor organic and inorganic molecules. Examples of organic molecules are vitamins, while those that are not are metal ions (Fe+2, Mn+2)
1. Based on where the enzyme works
- Endoenzymes are enzymes that work inside the cell
- Exoenzymes are enzymes that work outside the cell
2. Based on the way it is built
- Basic enzymes are enzymes whose number is affected by the concentration of the first molecule (substrate).
- Dynamic enzymes are enzymes whose formation is stimulated by the presence of a substrate
3. Based on the metabolic process
- Catalase is an antioxidant enzyme in living things
- Oxidase enzymes are enzymes whose function is to accelerate the addition of oxygen (O2) bonds to certain substrates.
- Carbosylase is an enzyme whose function is to convert organic acids back and forth.
- Hydrase enzymes are enzymes whose function is to add or reduce water (H2O) from certain chemicals.
- Dehydrogenase enzymes are enzymes whose function is to transfer hydrogen from one molecule/substance to another
- The desmolase enzyme is an oxidase and reductase enzyme whose function is to help join or transfer carbon bonds.
- A transferylase enzyme is an enzyme whose function is to move H3PO4 from one molecule/substance to another molecule with the help of magnesium ions (Mg2+).
- Peroxide enzymes are oxyreductase enzymes that synthesize heme proteins found in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms.
4. Based on the catalyzed reaction process
- Carbohydrase enzymes are enzymes that break down carbohydrates
- Protease enzymes are enzymes that cause the breakdown of protein chains in the body
- An esterase enzyme is an enzyme whose function is to catalyze the degradation of an ester chain
Enough things about Enzymes that we can explain including definition, nature, function, structure and types of enzymes.
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